PhD Research Project: CENTA NERC - Drought Sensitivity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe and Nort
rought frequency and severity are expected to in-crease globally under projected climate change, with unknown consequences for hydrological and terrestrial ecosystems, while the terrestrial hydrological cycle is strongly linked to changing ecosystem processes. Current management tools, however, are based on the assumption of stationarity. To solve complex questions related to drought and ecosystems in a non-stationary world we need new hypotheses and new tools. Traditionally, the effects of drought on hydrology and vegetation are considered separately, despite the integral role of the terrestrial hydrological cycle in determining streamflow. This exciting PhD project proposes to answer the questions: (1) what are the driving meteorological conditions for streamflow drought and ecosystem impacts, (2) what is the rela-tionship between terrestrial and hydrological drought sensitivity, and (3) how does this relationship vary among vegetation types (grassland, forest, agricul-ture) and climates (precipitation/temperature gradi-ent)? Using a novel methodology, we propose to di-rectly compare hydrological drought sensitivity (measured by streamflow) and terrestrial drought sensitivity (measured by aboveground net primary productivity, ANPP) via synthetic analysis of a number of experimental catchments where this data is available. Currently, a separate collaborative project is being set up in North-America on this topic focused on the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network. This PhD project will extend this work to Europe by analysing and comparing various European sites. The prospective sites are the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research site in the UK (BIFOR, http://www.birmingham. ac.uk/research/activity/ bifor/index.aspx), the Krycklan catchment in Sweden (http://www.slu.se/Krycklan; Figure 1), the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg, and the TERENO network in Germany (teodoor.icg.kfa-juelich.de). The goal is to investigate a large number of sites in order to quantitatively assess tradeoffs and synergies between hydrological and terrestrial drought sensitivity across a climatic and ecosystem gradient. In a unique collaborative action, the results of this PhD project will then be compared with results from the North-American dataset with the aim to predict complex relationships between the ecosystem and (lack of) water under future climate change and vegetation changes (a non-stationary world).
The methodology for this project will be developed in conjunction with our partners in North-America and will draw from the experience of the supervisory team. For all of the sites, drought indices and hydrological and ecological drought sensitivity metrics will be calculated from generally available datasets of meteorological conditions (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), streamflow observations and terrestrial ecosystem variables (net primary production). Terrestrial and hydrological drought sensitivity will be assessed separately; the relationship between the drought indices and the hydrological and ecological drought sensitivity metrics indicates how much of the interannual variability is explained by drought severity. Hydrological and terrestrial sensitivity will then be considered in tandem to assess the relationship between streamflow and ecosystem productivity.
In addition to completing an online application form, you will also need to complete and submit the CENTA studentship application form available from www.centa.org.uk.
CENTA studentships are for 3.5 years and are funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). In addition to the full payment of their tuition fees, successful candidates will receive the following financial support.
Annual stipend, set at £14,296 for 2016/17
Research training support grant (RTSG) of £8,000
CENTA students are required to undertake from 45 days training throughout their PhD including a 10 day placement.
- Laudon, H., I. Taberman, A. Ågren, M. Futter, M. Ottosson-Löfvenius, and K. Bishop (2013), The Krycklan CatchmentStudy—A flagship infrastructure for hydrology, biogeochemistry, and climate research in the boreal landscape, Water Resour. Res., 49,7154–7158, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20520.
- Teutschbein, C., Grabs, T., Karlsen, R.H., Laudon, H., Bishop, K. (2015) Hydrological Response to Changing Climate Conditions: Spatial Streamflow Variability in the Boreal Region, Water Resour Res, doi: 10.1002/2015WR017337.
- Tydecks, L., Bremerich, V., Jentschke, I., Likens, G. E., & Tockner, K. (2016). Biological Field Stations: A Global Infrastructure for Research, Education, and Public Engagement. BioScience, 66(2), 164-171. doi:10.1093/biosci/biv174.
- Van Loon, A. F. (2015), Hydrological drought explained. WIREs Water, 2: 359–392. doi:10.1002/wat2.1085.
- Wrede, S, Fenicia, F, Martínez-Carreras, N, Juilleret, J, Hissler, C, Krein, A, Savenije, HHG, Uhlenbrook, S, Kavetski, D, and Pfister, L (2015), Towards more systematic perceptual model development: a case study using 3 Luxembourgish catchments. Hydrol. Process., 29, 2731–2750. doi: 10.1002/hyp.10393.
- Zipper, S.C., Qiu, J., Kucharik, C.J., 2016. Drought effects on US maize and soybean production: spatiotemporal patterns and historical changes. Environ. Res. Lett. 11, 94021. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094021
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